It deals with the functioning of immune systems and measures its malfunction in immunological disorders such as autoimmune disorders, hypersensitivities (allergies), immune-deficiencies and transplant rejection. The immune system is divided into-
- Innate- first line of defense, non-specific and resistance is static. This includes physical defenses such as skin and epithelial surfaces.
- Adaptive- second line of defense, activated once the innate system has been overwhelmed. Immunological tests for infectious disease include agglutination tests, complement fixation, enzyme immune-assays (ELISA), precipitation and Western blot tests.